Author Archives: kspicher

Published Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera

The Archive contains evidence of some ways in which notated music was reproduced and circulated outside the usual methods of printed publication and private manuscript copying.  Below are examples of “published” manuscripts and printed ephemeral publications, showing how music outside the larger music trade might be acquired, played, and heard by amateur musicians.

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music was a quarterly compilation of music produced in copyist’s manuscript and sold by subscription:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). First Number. Cover

Though the cover and title page were printed, the contents were in manuscript, copied by hand for each subscriber.  The Archive contains the first two issues; an advertisement pasted in the first issue gives the terms of subscription:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). First Number. Advertisement

The publisher was Frederick Schirmer, who in 1805 had been licensed to produce “musical and dramatical interludes in the German Language” at the Sans Souci Theatre, originally built by singer and impresario Charles Dibdin.  Contents of Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music were composed or arranged by Joseph Wölfl (1773-1812), an Austrian pianist and composer. A former student of Leopold Mozart and Michael Haydn in Salzburg, Wölfl performed as a piano virtuoso in Vienna and other European cities, and composed opera, orchestral music, and music for solo piano. In 1805 Wölfl arrived in London, where he established a reputation as a pianist and composer before his early death in 1812.  Wölfl’s original contributions to Schirmer’s collections are music for amateur pianists, such as this rondo:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). Second Number. Joseph Wölfl. Rondo

Though production in manuscript might seem to support inclusion of new or little-known music, most of Wölfl’s arrangements were excerpts from well-known operas, such as this German-language version of “Finch’ han dal vino” from Mozart’s Don Giovanni, composed in 1787:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). First Number. Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Finch' han dal vino. German. Arranged for voice and keyboard

Or this excerpt from Nicolas Dalayrac’s Adolphe et Clara, composed in 1799, here in German with an English translation:

Schirmers Choice Manuscript Collection of Music (London, circa 1806). First Number. Dalayrac, Nicolas. Adolphe et Clara. German, with English translation

An example of printed ephemera is this keepsake version of a song by Gioacchino Rossini:

Rossini. Gioacchino. Arietta Con Accompagnamento di Piano Forte, Composed expressly for the Bazaar for the Foreigners in Distress (London: Lomax, 1833). Cover

The title page states that the music was printed in 1833 in support of a fundraising bazaar for The Society of Friends of Foreigners in Distress, a charity organization patronized by William IV and other members of the royal family:

Rossini. Gioacchino. Arietta Con Accompagnamento di Piano Forte, Composed expressly for the Bazaar for the Foreigners in Distress (London: Lomax, 1833). Title page

The music is Rossini’s song La passeggiata, for soprano and piano, composed in 1831:

Rossini. Gioacchino. Arietta Con Accompagnamento di Piano Forte, Composed expressly for the Bazaar for the Foreigners in Distress (London: Lomax, 1833). Page 1

Rossini. Gioacchino. Arietta Con Accompagnamento di Piano Forte, Composed expressly for the Bazaar for the Foreigners in Distress (London: Lomax, 1833). Pages 2-3

While the presence of this keepsake indicates the royal family’s support of the Society, other contents of the Archive show a wider interest in the music of Rossini.  Vocal scores dating from the 1820s are present for Rossini’s operas La Donna del Lago, La Gazza Ladra, Il Mosé in Egitto, Semiramide, and Tancredi.

Also in the Archive is this brief unbound collection of fourteen hymns for use by the chapel of Greenwich Hospital:

Relfe, Lupton. Hymns, Composed for the Use of the Chapel of the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich.... Print (London: Galabin, 1789). Cover

Greenwich Hospital served as a residence for invalid sailors of the Royal Navy, 1694-1870.  Contents of this collection include hymns for morning and evening, as well as special occasions such as Christmas, Easter, and “Founder’s Day.”  This hymn “taken from the 107th psalm” concerns a ship in danger:

Relfe, Lupton. Hymns, Composed for the Use of the Chapel of the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich.... Print (London: Galabin, 1789). Page 6

The composer of the hymns was Lupton Relfe (died 1805), an organist at Greenwich Hospital and father of pianist and teacher John Relfe (circa 1766-circa 1837).  It is not clear if this hymn collection was intended for use in Greenwich Hospital itself, or possibly as a way of making the composer and his music more widely known.  Though no other music by Lupton Relfe is present, the Archive does contain a copy of his son’s A Set of Grand Lessons for the Harpsichord or Piano-Forte, with the composer’s signature on the title page:

Relfe, John. A Set of Grand Lessons for the Harpsichord or Piano-Forte (London: author, undated). Title page

This work was dedicated to Princesses Mary and Sophia, two of the younger daughters of George III.  The Archive’s copy bears further evidence of the work’s association with the royal family: Lousia Cheveley, who served as a nurse to the young princesses and princes signed the title page and inscribed a preliminary page, dated 1784 June 7:

Relfe, John. A Set of Grand Lessons for the Harpsichord or Piano-Forte (London: author, undated). Preliminary page

Music for Harpists: Royal Amateurs, Virtuosi, and a Child Prodigy

Egan, Charles. A New Series of Instructions Arranged Expressly for the Royal Portable Irish Harp (Dublin: for the author by John Egan, circa 1822). Illustration on preliminary page

A revival of traditional Irish harp music in the early 19th century led instrument makers to design new harps suitable for amateur players.  John Egan, a harp maker active in Dublin, invented his “royal portable Irish harp” circa 1819.   Though resembling a traditional Irish harp in size, this instrument incorporated “ivory stops,” used to raise and lower pitches, allowing changes of key.  The illustration above appears in Charles Egan’s A New Series of Instructions Arranged Expressly for the Royal Portable Irish Harp (Dublin: for the author by John Egan), prefaced by a dedication to Princess Augusta dated 1822. 

Egan, Charles. A New Series of Instructions Arranged Expressly for the Royal Portable Irish Harp (Dublin: for the author by John Egan, circa 1822). Title page

Both John and Charles Egan were associated with the royal family: John was “harp maker by authority of the royal warrant” to George IV, and Charles served as “professor of harp” to Princess Augusta.  Also present in the Archive are a manuscript “Selection of Preludes & Airs for the Royal Portable Irish Harp” by Charles Egan, accompanied by a letter of dedication to Princess Augusta and an essay on Irish music, all presumably in Egan’s autograph.  The “Preludes & Airs” incorporate Irish tunes, as well as a version of “God Save the King”:

Egan, Charles. Selection of Preludes & Airs for the Royal Portable Irish Harp. “God Save the King”

Princess Augusta’s interest in the harp extended beyond the revival of Irish traditions.  A volume of harp music with Augusta’s personalized binding includes popular opera excerpts arranged for pedal harp by Charles Egan and other composers.  Many song collections in the Archive employ the harp as an accompanying instrument.  One example is this collection of English ballads dedicated to Princess Augusta’s younger sister Mary by Sir William Parsons (1746-1817), “master of His Majesty’s band of musicians”:

Parsons, William. Six English Ballads With an Accompaniment For the Harp or Piano-Forte (no publisher, 1791). Title page

The Archive also contains works of two French harp virtuosos.  Nicholas Charles Bochsa (1789-1856), served as harpist to Napoleon and Louis XVIII, 1813-1816.  Fleeing charges of forgery, he arrived in London in 1817, was appointed professor of harp at the Royal Academy of Music and served as music director of the King’s Theatre, 1826-1830.  Bochsa composed opera, orchestra, and chamber music, as well as music for solo harp.  His pedagogical works included A New and Improved Method of Instruction for the Harp:

Bochsa, Robert Nicolas Charles,. A New and Improved Method of Instruction for the Harp (London: Chappell & Co., undated). Title page

Jean-Baptiste Cardon (1760-1803), a harp virtuoso and teacher in Paris, visited London in 1785 and dedicated his harp sonatas, op. 22, to George IV, then Prince of Wales.  After the French Revolution, Cardon settled in Russia and was appointed harpist to the Russian royal family.  The Archive’s copy of Cardon’s variations on the French folksong “Ah, vous dirai-je, maman” is annotated with manuscript fingerings, probably by Princess Augusta:

Cardon, Jean-Baptiste. Ah vous dirai je maman, with variations, pour la harp par Cardon Fils. Print (London: Chappell & Co., undated). First page

The presence of several works by Joseph Tudor Hughes indicate the royal family’s interest in this child prodigy harpist.

Hughes, Joseph Tudor. The Celebrated Welch Air...to which is added The Juvenile Bards Idea (London: Welsh, undated). Cover

Joseph Tudor Hughes (born circa 1827) was one of several siblings, all musical prodigies who sang and played the harp, violin, and concertina.  Originally from Wales, the children performed in England during the 1830s and emigrated with their parents to the United States in 1838. 

Hughes, Joseph Tudor.  British Melodies, the Composition of Master Hughes, from the fourth to the ninth year of his age (London: for the proprietor, by D'Almaine, undated).  Cover

Hughes, Joseph Tudor. British Melodies, the Composition of Master Hughes, from the fourth to the ninth year of his age (London: for the proprietor, by D'Almaine, undated). Cover

Hughes, Joseph Tudor. British Melodies, the Composition of Master Hughes, from the fourth to the ninth year of his age (London: for the proprietor, by D'Almaine, undated). Illustration

The collection of compositions by Joseph Tudor Hughes shown above includes “Llewellyn’s Lament,” based on a legend of Prince Llewellyn the Great of Wales:

Hughes, Joseph Tudor. British Melodies, the Composition of Master Hughes, from the fourth to the ninth year of his age (London: for the proprietor, by D'Almaine, undated). Llewellyn’s Lament. First page

One manuscript by Hughes is present in the Archive.  Titled “The Infant’s Farewell,” the manuscript is annotated “this melody was composed by Master Hughes on the occation of leaveing his mother to come to Brighton as farewell”:

Hughes, Joseph Tudor. The Infant’s Farewell, undated

Sadly, Joseph Tudor Hughes’s life was cut short by a drowning accident in 1841.  His brother David Edward Hughes (1831-1900) became a professor of music and natural philosophy at St. Joseph’s College in Bardstown, Kentucky.  He returned to London in the 1870s, where he had a distinguished career as a scientist and inventor of telegraph and telephone technology.

An Astronomer’s Music Book

Caroline Lucretia Herschel (1750-1848), an English astronomer of German birth, was born in Hanover, in a family of military musicians.  In 1772, she moved to England, settling in Bath with her older brother, musician and astronomer William Herschel (1738-1822).  In England, Caroline Herschel pursued a career as a soprano, while studying mathematics and assisting her brother with his astronomical observations.  Brother and sister both eventually gave up music to pursue astronomy full time.  Following his discovery of Uranus in 1781, William was knighted and appointed court astronomer.  Caroline’s discoveries of nebulae and comets led to a salaried court position and recognition by the Royal Astronomical Society.  She continued her astronomical work after returning to Hanover following William’s death in 1822.  Her publications included Catalogue of stars, a reorganization of the star catalog created by John Flamsteed (1646-1719), first royal astronomer, and A Catalogue of the nebulae which have been observed by William Herschel

The Hanover Royal Music Archive contains a volume of manuscript music exercises and notes on music study kept by Caroline Herschel.  The volume, bound in full sprinkled calf with gold tooling, measures 29.5 by 24 centimeters and contains 92 unnumbered pages, included about 15 blank pages.  The volume is undated, but was written in English and was likely created after Herschel’s arrival in England and before her full-time work in astronomy, circa 1772-1781. 

Several sample images from the volume are shown below; images of the complete volume are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library.

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Cover

Herschel’s signature appears on the front pastedown:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Front pastedown

Contents of the volume include elements of  music theory:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on clefs, key signatures, and fingering

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on intervals

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on tuning

Other contents reflect Herschel’s study of singing and keyboard performance during this period:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Singing exercises

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Unidentified music for keyboard

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on harmony and accompaniment, page 1

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on harmony and accompaniment, page 2

 

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Notes on harmony and accompaniment, page 3

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Solfege exercise

Solfege exercises in the volume are incomplete; the exercise shown above is followed by 14 pages prepared with headings only, such as “solfeggio per gli dissonanzie,” “per la falsetta,” and “per la sycopatione.”  Clear and precise music notation and diagrams, all presumably in Herschel’s handwriting, seem to indicate a scientific approach to her music studies:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Example chords and circle of fifths

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Conducting patterns and notes on music notation

Other contents show a lively sense of fun, such as these humorous catches:

Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Music book (Box 824). Catches

How did Herschel’s music book end up in the Archive among music books of the royal princesses?  Caroline and William had ties to the royal court through their official appointments as astronomers, but the possibility of a musical connection with the royal family is more mysterious, and may offer further insight into Caroline Herschel’s early life and education.

French Fashions in London

While most of the Archive documents musical activity at the court of George III, a few items concern related literary and artistic pursuits of the princesses.  Journal des dames, a serial published in London, brought current fashions in French literature, music, and dress to English subscribers.  Five volumes of bound issues for 1817-1819 are found in the Archive, containing articles for language study, printed in French and Italian on facing pages; music and dance instructions for French social dance; and, as shown in the example above, fashion plates and embroidery patterns.

Several sample images from a volume with binder’s title “1er Année: Modes et dessins de broderie” are shown below.  Complete images for the following volumes are available in Beinecke’s Digital Library:
1er Année: Modes et dessins de broderie
2de Année: Modes et dessins de broderie
1er Année: Litterature
2de Année: Litterature
2de Année: Musique instrumentale

Journal des dames. (London: C. Arnoux, 1817-1819). Bound issues, cover

This volume is one of two collections of fashion plates from Journal des dames.  Each volume contains approximately 50 engraved plates showing women’s dresses worn at court, balls, masked balls, and weddings, as well as women’s hats and coats, and a few examples of children’s clothing.  The volume contains the following title page:

Journal des dames. (London: C. Arnoux, 1817-1819). Bound issues, title page

Most plates have been hand colored with watercolors, possibly by the princesses.  Surrounding each  illustration are two or more embroidery patterns, some with instructions in English.  Below are several examples from this volume, which contains plates identified as “Costume Parisien du mois de juin, 1817.”

One of two wedding dresses in the volume:

Other dresses are for balls:

This volume contains one costume for a masked ball, inspired by clothing of Peru:

Though most plates show women’s dresses, there are a few examples of children’s clothing:

Some embroidery patterns are for hats or accessories, such as these “chiffres pour mouchior de poche” (monograms for handkerchiefs):

Several plates show additional hats in detail:

Mozart’s “Haydn” String Quartets

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Quartet, strings, K. 387, G major. (London: L. Lavenu, circa 1797). Part for first violin, beginning of first movement

The Jasper String Quartet will perform Mozart’s String Quartet K. 387 and Beethoven’s String Quartet op. 59, no. 3 on Tuesday, October 12, 2010, 5:15 PM, at the Beinecke Library.  The  concert and reception will celebrate the opening of the exhibition “God Save the King: Music from the British Royal Court, 1770-1837.”

This early edition of Mozart’s string quartet K. 387, shown above, was published in London circa 1797, as part of a set of three  quartets: K. 387, 421, and 458 (“Hunt”).   Together with K. 428, 464, and 465 (“Dissonance”), these quartets are known as the “Haydn Quartets,” a set of six works composed by Mozart in Vienna during 1782-1785 and first published by Artaria in 1785, with a dedication to Joseph Haydn.  A generation older than Mozart, Haydn is considered the father of the string quartet as a modern form of composition, and his works in this genre exerted a strong influence on Mozart.  Haydn and Mozart were friends as well as colleagues, and are said to have performed quartets together in Mozart’s home in Vienna, with Haydn on first violin and Mozart on viola.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Quartets, strings, K. 387, 421, 458 (London: L. Lavenu, circa 1797). Part for first violin, cover.

The Hanover Royal Music Archive’s edition of Mozart’s first three Haydn quartets was published by Lewis Lavenu (died 1818).  Lavenu founded his London music publishing business at no. 23 Duke Street by 1796; the quartets appear to have been published soon after, as the paper is watermarked 1797.  Manuscript annotations identify each part and indicate that these parts are the “1st”  of two books, each of which contained three of the six quartets.  Lavenu formed a partnership with Charles Mitchell in 1802 and continued his business under the name Lavenu & Mitchell.  Mozart’s Haydn quartets were evidently popular with English musicians, as they were reissued by Lavenu & Mitchell circa 1805.

A label affixed to each part indicates that the music was sold at the premises of William Milhouse:

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Quartets, strings, K. 387, 421, 458. (London: L. Lavenu, circa 1797). Part for first violin, label on cover.

The Milhouse family (sometimes spelled Millhouse) were prominent makers of woodwind instruments in Newark and London.  William Milhouse (1761-1834) had opened his London shop by 1787 and moved to 337 Oxford Street by end of 1797.  Milhouse continued as a highly successful woodwind maker through the 1830s, claiming association with the royal family as manufacturer to the Dukes of Kent and Cumberland.  While primarily an instrument maker, he also published and sold music, as is indicated by the label on the quartets.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Quartets, strings, K. 387, 421, 458. (London: L. Lavenu, circa 1797). Original folder, from music of the Duke of Cumberland’s band.

Originally housed in this folder headed “H. R. H. E. D. C.” (His Royal Highness, Ernest Duke of Cumberland), the quartets are part of music performed by the private band of Ernest Augustus (1771-1851), Duke of Cumberland and later King of Hanover.  Though most music of the Duke’s band is for wind band or orchestra, some chamber music is present, indicating both a flexible range of musicians employed by the Duke, and his interest in hearing these particular works.

Below are example pages from second violin, viola, and cello parts for Mozart’s string quartet K. 387:

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Quartet, strings, K. 387 (London: L. Lavenu, circa 1797). Part for second violin, third movement and beginning of fourth movement

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Quartet, strings, K. 387 (London: L. Lavenu, circa 1797). Part for viola, third movement and beginning of fourth movement

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Quartet, strings, K. 387 (London: L. Lavenu, circa 1797). Part for cello, end of first movement and beginning of second movement

Instrumental Pedagogy

The Archive contains several pedagogical works for use in teaching and studying the playing of musical instruments.  An example is Bartolomeo Campagnoli’s Nouvelle méthode de la mécanique progressive du jeu de violon:

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode de la mécanique progressive du jeu de violon (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1824). Title page

Bartolomeo Campagnoli (1751-1827), an Italian violinist and composer born in Bologna, toured throughout Europe as a performer during the 1770s-1780s.  Campagnoli worked on his Nouvelle méthode for violin while serving as music director at the court of the Duke of Courland, Dresden, 1779-1797, and as leader of the Gewandhaus Orchestra, Leipzig, 1797-1818.  He completed the work in Hanover, where he settled in 1820 with his two daughters, who were pursuing careers as singers.  Published in 1824, the Nouvelle méthode was dedicated to Prince Adolphus, then vice-regent of Hanover.  Prince Adolphus (1774-1850), one of the younger sons of George III, became Duke of Cambridge in 1801, and served as vice-regent in Hanover from 1816, during the reigns of his brothers George IV and William IV, until his brother Ernest Augustus became King of Hanover in 1837. 

The Archive contains three copies of this work: two unbound as issued by the publisher, and one in a royal binding, dated at Hanover, 1823.  It is unclear why the date on the cover predates the publication date: possibly a copy was given early to a royal patron, or perhaps the date on the cover is incorrect.

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode. Cover

Contents of the Nouvelle méthode are in five parts, covering the elements of music notation and violin technique, with progressive exercises. 

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode. List of contents

These exercises, from part one, are in the form of duets for a student and teacher:

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode. Page 9

Explanations of performing technique are supplemented with illustrations:

Campagnoli, Bartolomeo. Nouvelle méthode. “Tab. II”

Campagnoli achieved more lasting success with his pedagogical works than as a composer.  His Nouvelle méthode  for violin was published in Italian, English, and American editions.  He remains best known for his 41 caprices for viola, op. 22, which are still in use by violists.

Patronage of Theoretical Works on Music

The Archive contains several theoretical works on music that were supported by members of the royal family, either as dedicatees or subscribers.  These are typically works of musicians who also received patronage as composers and performers.  An example is Augustus Frederic Christopher Kollmann (1756-1829), who is represented in the Archive by compositions for keyboard and voice, An Introduction to the Art of Preluding and Extemporizing in Six Lessons for the Harpsichord or Harp, and An Essay on Practical Musical Composition.

Kollmann, Augustus Frederic Christopher (1756-1829). An Essay on Practical Musical Composition (London: author, 1799). Title page

Kollmann was born in Germany, where he began his career as an organist and teacher before serving as organist and schoolmaster at the Royal German Chapel in St James’s Palace, London, from 1782 until his death in 1829.  During his career in England, Kollmann published works in English on instrumental instruction, music analysis, harmony, and composition.  His Essay on Practical Musical Composition (1799) was dedicated to George III, who owned a copy of Kollmann’s previous work, An Essay on Musical Harmony (1796).  The subscriber’s list was headed by Queen Charlotte and included the Princess of Wales, the Duke and Duchess of York, and Princesses Augusta, Elizabeth, and Mary, as well as Charles Burney, John Peter Salomon, and other leading musicians.  Kollmann’s signature, indicating his ownership of copyright, appears on the title page of the Archive’s copy, shown above.

Kollmann, Augustus Frederic Christopher (1756-1829). An Essay on Practical Musical Composition (London: author, 1799). Pages 100-101

Contents address composition of fugues, canons, sonatas, and symphonies, and styles of vocal, instrumental, and national music.  Kollmann was influential in the revival of interest in J. S. Bach’s music in England; musical examples in the Essay include excerpts from Musikalisches Opfer and Die Kunst der Fuge.  Kollmann cited Haydn’s London Symphonies as a source for his ideas on the newer compositional forms of sonata and symphony, and the Essay contains an early description of sonata form.  In the section shown above, “Of Style and National Music,” Kollmann discusses music for church, chamber, theater, and open field, all genres well-represented in the Archive.